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The L.E.A.R.N. and R.E.S.P.E.C.T. Models of Cross–Cultural Communication

The L.E.A.R.N. Model of Cross–Cultural Communication

Source: Berlin, E. & Fowkes, W.A.(1983). A teaching framework for cross-cultural health care. Western Journal of Medicine, 139:934–938. Available from:

The R.E.S.P.E.C.T Model of Cross–Cultural Communication

Source: Welch, M. (1998). Enhancing awareness and improving cultural competence in health care. A partnership guide for teaching diversity and cross-cultural concepts in heath professional training. San Francisco: University of California at San Francisco.